"The contemporary term false flag describes covert operations that are designed to deceive in such a way that the operations appear as though they are being carried out by entities, groups, or nations other than those who actually planned and executed them.
Operations carried out during peace-time by civilian organizations, as well as covert government agencies, can (by extension) also be called false flag operations if they seek to hide the real organization behind an operation."
There is a secret correspondence betwee James VI of Scotland and Robert Cecil between May 1601 and the Queen's death in March 1603. In this period it was settled that James would succeed Elizabeth, but the diplomatic result was kept secret.
After Essex was executed in 1601 for rebelling against the Queen, Cecil felt free to initiate secret correspondence with King James VI of Scotland, advising the King on ways to cultivate Elizabeth's favour. As a result of his efforts, the succession, upon Elizabeth's death, passed without incident to James, who maintained Cecil as his secretary of state. He was made Viscount Cranborne in 1604 and earl of Salisbury in 1605.